The central idea of encapsulation and data hiding concept is that any non-member function has no access permission to the private data of the class. The private members of the class are accessed only from member functions of that class.
C++ allows a mechanism, in which a non-member function has access permission to the private members of the class. This can be done by declaring a non-member function friend to the class whose private data is to be accessed. The friend is a keyword. Consider the following example.
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